GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network

The climate reference network

The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) is an international reference observing network of sites measuring essential climate variables above Earth's surface, designed to fill an important gap in the current global observing system. GRUAN measurements are providing long-term, high-quality climate data records from the surface, through the troposphere, and into the stratosphere. These are being used to determine trends, constrain and calibrate data from more spatially‐comprehensive observing systems (including satellites and current radiosonde networks), and provide appropriate data for studying atmospheric processes. GRUAN is envisaged as a global network of eventually 30-40 sites that, to the extent possible, builds on existing observational networks and capabilities.

GRUAN promotional video

This video provides an excellent overview of the goals and principles of GRUAN and its relation to the current challenges in climate research. You can find this and other public outreach material here.

Status of GRUAN sites

GRUAN is envisaged as a global network of eventually 30-40 measurement sites. To the extent possible, it builds on existing observational networks and capabilities. As at August 2020, GRUAN comprises of 30 sites, 12 of which have been GRUAN certified.

Status of data flow

A comprehensive volume of measurement data has been collected by GRUAN since 2008. The archive includes raw data and related meta-data. For the Vaisala RS92 and the Meisei RS-11G radiosonde, GRUAN Data Products (GDP) have been fully implemented and certified. Further GDPs are in certification process or under development.

Latest news

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GRUAN reaches 30 site mark - First GRUAN site in Africa

With the addition of two more sites GRUAN has grown to 30 sites. At the same time it also marks the establishment of the first GRUAN site on African…

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ICM-12 Virtual: 16-20 November 2020

The 12th GRUAN annual Implementation and Coordination Meeting, ICM-12, took place 16-20 November 2020 as virtual meeting.

All presentations and…

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AMT paper Fassò et al. 2020

The following GRUAN-relevant paper was published at AMT: "Interpolation uncertainty of atmospheric temperature profiles" by Fassò et al.…

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Special issue of MDPI Atmosphere on GRUAN

The open access journal MDPI Atmosphere will have a special issue on GRUAN:

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GRUAN Technical Note 11 published

GRUAN Technical Note 11 (GRUAN-TN-11) published with title "Brief Description of GruanToolRs92 (gt92)"

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Registration for ICM-12 has started

ICM-12 is now open for registration.

Due to the global Covid-19 situation, this year's meeting will be organized as a condensed, virtual meeting in…

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RS paper Newman et al. 2020

The following GRUAN-relevant paper was published at RS: "Assessment of New Satellite Missions within the Framework of Numerical Weather Prediction" by…

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ESSDD paper Madonna et al. 2020 in review

The following GRUAN-relevant paper was published at ESSDD: "Radiosounding HARMonization (RHARM): a new homogenized dataset of radiosounding…

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JC paper Steiner et al. 2020

The following GRUAN-relevant paper was published at JC: "Observed Temperature Changes in the Troposphere and Stratosphere from 1979 to 2018" by…