GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network

The climate reference network

The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) is an international reference observing network of sites measuring essential climate variables above Earth's surface, designed to fill an important gap in the current global observing system. GRUAN measurements are providing long-term, high-quality climate data records from the surface, through the troposphere, and into the stratosphere. These are being used to determine trends, constrain and calibrate data from more spatially‐comprehensive observing systems (including satellites and current radiosonde networks), and provide appropriate data for studying atmospheric processes. GRUAN is envisaged as a global network of eventually 30-40 sites that, to the extent possible, builds on existing observational networks and capabilities.

GRUAN promotional video

This video provides an excellent overview of the goals and principles of GRUAN and its relation to the current challenges in climate research. You can find this and other public outreach material here.

Status of GRUAN sites

GRUAN is envisaged as a global network of eventually 30-40 measurement sites. To the extent possible, it builds on existing observational networks and capabilities. As at August 2020, GRUAN comprises of 30 sites, 12 of which have been GRUAN certified.

Status of data flow

A comprehensive volume of measurement data has been collected by GRUAN since 2008. The archive includes raw data and related meta-data. For the Vaisala RS92 and the Meisei RS-11G radiosonde, GRUAN Data Products (GDP) have been fully implemented and certified. Further GDPs are in certification process or under development.

Latest news

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Station |

GRUAN reaches 30 site mark - First GRUAN site in Africa

With the addition of two more sites GRUAN has grown to 30 sites. At the same time it also marks the establishment of the first GRUAN site on African…

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Meeting |

ICM-12: virtual meeting 16-20 November 2020

In view of the Covid-19 situation, ICM-12 will be organized as a virtual meeting. The meeting will consist of 3-4 days with 2-3 hour video conferences…

Article |

ESSDD paper Madonna et al. 2020 in review

The following GRUAN-relevant paper was published at ESSDD: "Radiosounding HARMonization (RHARM): a new homogenized dataset of radiosounding…

Article |

JC paper Steiner et al. 2020

The following GRUAN-relevant paper was published at JC: "Observed Temperature Changes in the Troposphere and Stratosphere from 1979 to 2018" by…

Article |

GI paper Dirksen et al. 2020

The following GRUAN-relevant paper was published at GI: "Managing the transition from Vaisala RS92 to RS41 radiosondes within the Global Climate…

Document Software |

GRUAN Technical Note 6 published

GRUAN Technical Note 6 (GRUAN-TN-6) published with title "Brief Description of GruanToolRsLaunch (gtRsl)"

Article |

AMT paper Madonna et al. 2020

The following GRUAN-relevant paper was published at AMT: "Use of automatic radiosonde launchers to measure temperature and humidity profiles from the…

Article |

AMTD paper Graf et al. 2020 in review

The following GRUAN-relevant paper was published at AMTD: "Compact and Lightweight Mid-IR Laser Spectrometer for Balloon-borne Water Vapor…

Article |

AMTD paper Fassò et al. 2020 in review

The following GRUAN-relevant paper was published at AMTD: "Interpolation uncertainty of atmospheric temperature radiosoundings" by Fassò et al.…